Tam Tự Kinh

Tam Tự Kinh

Khổng Tử – Đạo Nho

TAM TỰ KINH” là sách học vỡ lòng của con trẻ Trung Quốc và cả Việt Nam thời xưa, được soạn từ đời TỐNG (960-1279), đến các đời MINH, THANH lại được bổ sung. Nội dung của sách chỉ hơn một ngàn chữ (1000); bố trí ba chữ một câu có vần, do đó mà đặt tên là TAM TỰ KINH. Nhưng sao gọi là Kinh? Nó có phải như lời của Lưu Hiệp nói trong Văn Tâm Điêu Long là do thánh nhân chế tác nên gọi là Kinh (Thánh nhân chế tác viết Kinh, Hiền giả trứ thuật viết Truyện). Sách không hẳn là do thánh nhân làm ra, nhưng nó là kết tinh của sách vở thánh hiền truyền lại. Chỉ hơn một ngàn chữ mà nêu ra đủ trọng tâm các vấn đề: Từ bản tính sơ sinh “Tính tương cận, Tập tương viễn” đến giáo pháp, giáo đạo “Ngọc bất trác bất thành khí, nhân bất học bất tri lý”, Tu tề, Hiếu để, từ bản thân đến vạn vật, vũ trụ: Tam tài, tam quang, tam cương, ngũ hành, ngũ nghĩa, ngũ thường… Tứ thư, Ngũ kinh, gương chuyên cần, đạo xử thế…, còn lược kê cả những diễn biến lịch sử Trung Quốc từ Phục Hy, Thần Nông đến Minh, Thanh v.v…

Sách vỡ lòng được soạn như vậy thật quá chu đáo, dù không học nhiều, nhưng với 1000 chữ, khi nắm vững được nghĩa lý, cũng khã dĩ cho con người có một khái niệm vững chắc về cuộc sống; về đạo đời, là mẫu mực sáng giá cho đến ngày nay.
Chúng tôi sinh ra khi nền Hán học ở Việt Nam đã đi vào giai đoạn suy tàn, nên khi cắp sách đến trường chúng tôi chỉ biết có Tây học. Mãi đến lúc trưởng thành mới ý thức được tầm quan trọng của chữ Hán, thì phải tự tìm tòi học hỏi, lại không có may mắn gặp được sách hay như TAM TỰ KINH nầy, nên mất thì giờ không ít. Mãi đến gần đây mới tìm thấy được sách TAM TỰ KINH, bản dịch tiếng Pháp của Babé – xuất bản năm 1910 (Livre des Phrases de trois caractères), và bản TAM TỰ KINH, dịch nghĩa và chú thích của Đoàn Trung Còn xuất bản năm 1950, tiếp đó lại có quyển TAM TỰ KINH – bạch thoại cú giải, của người Việt gốc Hoa ở Thành Phố Hồ Chí Minh tái bản. trong ba bản cũng có đôi chỗ dị biệt, nhưng trên đại thể vẫn giống nhau.

Như đã nói trên, TAM TỰ KINH là sách học vỡ lòng cho trẻ con thời xưa, nhưng ngày nay cũng rất hữu ích cho những ai muốn học chữ Hán, do đó chúng tôi không ngần ngại cho Tái bản tập TAM TỰ KINH của học giả Đoàn Trung Còn (vì xét ra phần dịch nghĩa và chú thích khá phong phú). Đồng thời để đáp ứng cho nhu cầu học Hán Nôm đang trên đà phát triển mạnh, chúng tôi cho in thêm phần chữ Nôm bên chữ Hán để tiện việc học tập. 

Tải bài viết về đọc tại đây!

Đọc thêm: “TAM TỰ KINH” 1 và “TAM TỰ KINH” 2 và “TAM TỰ KINH” 3

ĐẠO NHO

Sưu tầm

Nguyễn Văn Thân

Giới thiệu Website

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