Lều Chõng

Lều Chõng

Ngô Tất TốTrường Thi Nam Định Năm 1897Tác Phẩm Lều Chõng


TÁC GIẢ VÀ TÁC PHẨM

NGÔ TẤT TỐ (1894-1954) Ngô Tất Tố sinh năm 1894 ở Làng Lộc Hà, Tổng Hội Phụ, Phủ Từ Sơn, Bắc Ninh (nay là Xã Mai Lâm, Huyện Đông Anh, Hà Nội. Từ nhỏ, Ngô Tất Tố theo học chữ Nho. Năm Nhâm Tý (1912), ông bắt đầu dự thi. Đến năm Ất Mão (1915) ông đỗ đầu kỳ sát hạch, nên được gọi là Đầu Xứ Tố.

Năm 1926, Ngô Tất Tố ra Hà Nội làm báo rồi cùng với Tản Đà vào Sài Gòn. Sau gần ba năm ở Sài Gòn không thành công, Ngô Tất Tố trở ra Hà Nội vẫn với hai bàn tay trắng.

Ông sinh sống bằng cách viết bài cho các báo: Phổ Thông, Tương Lai, Công Dân, Đông Pháp, Thời Vụ, Hà Nội Tân Văn…với nhiều bút danh khác nhau như: Thục Điểu, Lộc Hà, Lộc Đình, Thôn Dân, Phó Chi, Tuệ Nhơn, Thuyết Hải, Xuân Trào, Hy Cừ…

Trong cuốn tiểu thuyết Lều Chõng, ông mô tả cảnh thi cử dưới chế độ xã hội phong kiến xưa, nêu lên sự sụp đổ tinh thần của những nho sĩ suốt đời lấy khoa cử làm con đường tiến thân nhưng lại bị hoàn toàn thất vọng.

Tắt Đèn là tác phẩm thành công nhất của Ngô Tất Tố, trong đó ông nêu lên cảnh cơ khổ cùng cực của tầng lớp nông dân Việt Nam dưới sự bóc lột cay nghiệt của giới địa chủ.

Từ gần một trăm năm nay, “ Khoa cử Hán học” với “ Lều chõng” đã vắng bóng trên đất nước ta.   Là nhân chứng và cũng là nạn nhân của trận cuồng phong “ giáo dục hán học sụp đổ”, Ngô Tất Tố có “đủ tư cách, đủ thẩm quyền” mà ít ai sánh kịp, để thỏa sức viết về học hành, thi cử, về giới nhà Nho của thời xưa.

Lều chõng đã tái hiện một cách sinh động, sắc nét, giúp các thế hệ hậu sinh lội ngược dòng thời gian để khám phá về   Lều chõng – không gian có ý nghĩa đặc biệt, không chỉ liên quan chuyện văn chương, chữ nghĩa mà còn gắn bó mật thiết đến vận mệnh đại sự của quốc gia, đến sự tồn vong, hưng thịnh của đất nước.

Thành công đặc sắc của Lều Chõng là nói lên “ bi kịch” của giới nhà Nho – lớp trí thức thời xưa.  Vô cũng ngám ngấm với kiếp sống đam mê nuôi ảo tưởng khát khao “ cuộc đời vàng son” khi thành đạt, suốt đời lăn lộn, lao đao tìm đường tiến thân bằng “ khoa cử”, sau khi vỡ mộng, “ kẽ sĩ” đã thức tỉnh, rũ bỏ tâm lý “đam mê hoài vọng về khoa cử” để trở về với đời thường.

Hãy nghe Ngô Tất Tố nói về Lều Chõng vào năm 1939 (Ngày 1/4/1919, khoa thi Hội cuối cùng, tức khoa Kỷ Mùi được tổ chức)

LỀU CHÕNG

Ngày nay nghe đến hai từ “Lều Chõng”, có lẽ nhiều người sẽ lấy làm lạ vì những từ ấy từ biệt chúng ta mà đi tới chỗ mất tích đã gần ba chục năm nay.
Nhưng mà trước hơn hai chục năm đi ngược trở lên, cho đến hơn một nghìn năm, “Lều” “Chõng” đã làm chủ vận mệnh của giang sơn cũ kỹ mà người ta tán khoe là “bốn nghìn năm văn hiến”.
Những ông ngồi trong miếu đường làm rường cột cho nhà nước, những ông ở nơi tuyền thạch, làm khuôn mẫu cho đạo đức phong hóa, đều ở trong đám “lều chõng” mà ra.
Lều chõng với nước Việt Nam chẳng khác một đôi tạo vật đã chế tạo đủ các hạng người hữu dụng hay vô dụng.
Chính nó đã làm cho nước Việt Nam trở nên một nước có văn hóa. Rồi lại chúng nó đã đưa nước Việt Nam đến chỗ diệt vong.

Với chúng, nước Việt Nam trong một thời kỳ rất dài kinh qua nhiều cảnh tượng kỳ quái, khiến cho người ta phải cười, phải khóc, phải rụng rời hồn vía.

NGÔ TẤT Tố.
Thời vụ số 109 ra ngày 10-3-1939.


Đọc thêm

♣ Đạo Nho

♣ Tam Tự Kinh

♣ Khoa Bảng Việt Nam


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